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ii°i- 9/3: n 31 

Clemson University 

3 1604 019 780 990 



"Training is a basic responsibility of manage- 
ment at every level of operation. Each manager 
and supervisor is responsible for training em- 
ployees for effective job performance, for 
developing their career potential, and for 
encouraging and giving recognition to 
self-development. ,, 

Departmental Manual, Personnel, Part 383 
Training and Employee Development. 

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office 
Washington 25, D.C. - Price 30 cents 


A Tool to Unleash 
Creativity and Potential 


The National Park Service 




One of the National Park Service's most important assets is our 
management talent. For it is our executives, managers, and 
supervisors who conceive and carry out the policies and plans 
essential to meet the problems of today and tomorrow. I firmly 
believe, therefore, that management development is too vital to 
the success of our National Park Service's goals and ideals to be 
left to chance. 

The primary purpose of the Management Development Pro- 
gram in the National Park Service is to help all of our executives, 
managers, and supervisors improve the performance of their pres- 
ent assignments. In addition, it is designed to identify those 
people who have potential for greater responsibilities and focuses 
attention on some of the ways and means by which they can be 
prepared to assume such responsibilities in the future. In essence, 
we are concerned with both short-range and long-range improve- 
ment and development. 

I have always considered an effective leader to be one who has 
a sincere and strong desire to help his staff grow and advance, 
and who enthusiastically works at it, too. The manager who 
achieves a real satisfaction from serving as a coach will have little 
difficulty in "finding time" for this responsibility. 

It also has been my observation that the growth of people 
depends on the environment which you and I, as supervisors, 
create. It is up to all of us who are in the managerial group, 
then, to be certain that we think and act in a positive way about 
the planned development of our people. This means that we 
must provide day-to-day attention not only to the development 
of those who report to us, but to ourselves, too. If we as manag- 
ers believe we need no further improvement, we will not be able 


to provide our subordinates with the inspiration and guidance 
they need for their continued growth. 

Basic to the development of all of our managers is a system 
which provides for : 

• a passing on to subordinates, in a systematic way, the knowl- 
edge and skills we ourselves already have acquired. This is 
essentially a responsibility to the Service to function as an en- 
thusiastic coach. 

• a plan for the individual's development which has been 
worked up on a mutual basis by him and his superior. 

• the fullest possible encouragement and help to one's sub- 
ordinate to see that such development takes place. 

The ideas outlined in this booklet follow these three principles. 
They should help you to develop more readily your supervisory 
staff members, and others as well. 

Conrad L. Wirth. 


Although I have done the basic work in preparing this booklet, 
I wish to emphasize that the ideas in it are drawn from the experi- 
ence and thinking of many persons in industry, government and 
education. Field officials of the National Park Service were par- 
ticularly helpful in offering suggestions, criticisms and raising 
pointed questions. 

Julius E. Eitington, 
Chief, Branch of Training. 




Introduction vi 

Do You Have a Management Philosophy? 1 

Why Management Development? 3 

Principles of Development 9 

Climate, Motivation and Creativity 15 

Relation to Performance Rating Plan 19 

Relation to Promotion Program 20 

How to Start the Development Job 22 

How to Develop A PLAN FOR THE MAN 23 

A Discussion of Problems in the Work Situation 23 

Goal Setting on a Mutual Basis 26 

Setting Performance Standards 28 

Use of Appraisal Panels 31 

Discussion Regarding Career Goals 36 

After the Interview 38 

Techniques to Develop Managers 40 

Making the PLAN FOR THE MAN Idea Succeed 43 

Appendix I — A Guide to the Conduct of Interviews on 

Performance and Development 45 

II — Planned Performance Targets 49 

III — Standards of Performance 50 


V — Techniques of Management Development . . 52 

For Further Reading 69 


This booklet is a biased one; in fact, it is as biased as any you 
have ever read. It holds staunchly these biases : 

• The National Park Service, as a progressive, forward-looking 
organization, is entitled to the highest possible level of perform- 
ance by its managers. 

• High performance requires the unleashing of creativity and 
potential which can come about only through planned develop- 
ment of our managerial staff. 

• In a career bureau such as the National Park Service, the 
development of our managers is too important to be conducted 
intermittently or indifferently. 

• A vital portion of the manager's job is to develop systemati- 
cally the supervisors (and others )who report to him. 

• Managers are made, not born. 

• We can do a more effective job of developing our managers 
than we now do. 

• Managers can be made more effective if we concentrate on 
an individualized, tailor-made PLAN FOR THE MAN. 1 

Why a Formal Program? 

Many supervisors in the Service are now doing a good job of 
working with their staff on their development. In addition, 
various other established programs, e.g., lateral transfer, promo- 
tion, formal schools, participation in task forces, performance 

1 Employees on the distaff side will readily recognize that we are using 
man in the generic sense of the term. We obviously want to train women 
employees of our work force, too. 


rating discussions, and the like, provide opportunities for 
broadened experience. If this is the case, why do we need an 
added program such as A PLAN FOR THE MAN? 

We believe this querry is a good one and can be answered in 
this way : 

First, guide lines and specific skill approaches are needed by 
all supervisors to do the most effective training and develop- 
ment job. The supervisor who is sincerely interested in staff 
development will welcome a booklet and plan specifically geared 
to this purpose. 

Second, while many supervisors may be active in develop- 
ment activities to various degrees, a significant number of others 
may not. Thus the need for a more formal and systematic 

Third, while a certain amount of informal and intermittent 
counseling is already going on, it is doubtful if truly compre- 
hensive talks would be held and specific plans developed with- 
out the spur of a more formal program such as A PLAN FOR 
THE MAN. Pressure of work, "crises" of various sorts and 
just plain inertia all too often provide reasons to "defer" the 

Fourth, in a Service as diverse and far-flung as ours, it is 
desirable and essential to provide like training and develop- 
ment opportunities. A formal plan, encompassing all who are 
eligible, is the only equitable and democratic approach to the 

Flexibility In Approach 

The PLAN FOR THE MAN concept is designed to give the 
supervisor the maximum amount of flexibility and freedom in 
working up a development plan. Thus, no single technique, such 
as the use of appraisal panels, is required. All that is required 
is that any one of the various approaches presented, which can be 
used to best meet local needs, be applied conscientiously. 


Similarly, no deadlines are required by the Washington Office 
for the preparation of an individual PLAN FOR THE MAN. 
However, a given park or office will find it desirable to establish 
some phasing system or time schedule to ensure that (a) inter- 
views or counseling sessions are held, and (b) the PLANS are 
actually developed, reviewed by the next level of supervision, and 
followed-up periodically with subordinates. But this should be 
done to meet varying local needs, conditions, and peak workload 

Small vs. Large Organizations 

This booklet has been expressly designed to meet the needs of 
supervisors at all levels in the Service. We also believe that the 
basic ideas and skills presented in this booklet can be applied in 
any park or office regardless of size. For wherever subordinates 
exist, in small or large numbers, there is a need for a planned 
approach to training, growth, and development. 

The small organization will find it easier to work with these 
ideas because of a number of "built-in" or plus factors — greater 
informality, more face-to-face communications, natural oppor- 
tunities for broadened as opposed to specialized experience, 
greater familiarity by the total staff with each other's problems, 
accomplishments, skills, etc. The larger organization, contrari- 
wise, may have a greater challenge ; but with proper planning and 
organization for the development job, it, too, can apply the con- 
cepts and tools provided. 

Relation to Daily Workload 

New programs always raise questions about existing workload 
in relation to new or added requirements. This, of course, is a 
valid concern. We believe, however, that as you study the PLAN 
FOR THE MAN approach to staff development and work with 
it, you will find that: 


A. It is essentially a line program which many supervisors are 
already applying in whole or in part. 

B. It is a program designed to gear in well with and improve 
current activities and operations. 

C. It is a relatively simple program to incorporate in current 
activities; in fact, no special forms are required. 

D. The small time required to develop A PLAN FOR THE 
MAN should be regarded as an investment. If it is done enthusi- 
astically and thoroughly, we can expect pay ofTs in terms of higher 
performance, improved operations, better communications, and 
the like. All of which will save time in the long run. 

Also, the matter of expenditure of time is a personal kind of 
thing and has to be resolved for each supervisor in relation to 
questions such as these: Am I really satisfied with the quality 
and quantity of work of my subordinates? Are they entirely clear 
about my expectations regarding their work? Am I doing every- 
thing I should to encourage creativity and unleash potential? 
Am I effective as I should be as a developer of staff? What are 
the alternatives to a planned approach to staff development? 

Relationship to Existing Personnel Management 

The PLAN FOR THE MAN concept builds upon and lends 
support to the responsibilities supervisors already have for per- 
sonnel management. This is particularly true in respect to such 
areas as promotion policy, lateral transfer and performance rating. 
These relationships are described in more detail on pages 19 
and 20. 

Implementation at Park and Office Levels 

The booklet has a number of concepts in it which may be sub- 
ject to varying degrees of understanding by Service supervisors. 
We therefore urge all park and office heads to: 

A. Familiarize themselves with its contents. 


660081 O — 62 2 

B. Encourage subordinate supervisors to read the handbook 

C. Hold discussion groups about its contents. 

D. Follow up periodically to ensure that all concerned are 
clear as to their responsibilities and that realistic PLANS are 
worked up. 

Do You Have A Management 
Development Philosophy ? 

You and every other manager 2 have a philosophy about man- 
agement development. You may not have really discussed it with 
anyone, or reduced it to writing, or compared it with other man- 
agers' philosophies. But you do have one. For this is what you 
act upon every day. Here are several philosophies or approaches 
to development. To which one do you subscribe? 




"We're doing o.k. as is" 

"Managers are born, not made" 

"Cream will rise to the top" 

"Experience is the best teacher" 

"That's the way I learned" 

"Let sleeping dogs lie" 

Yes, but 

"I really haven't thought it through" 

"We're not ready for it yet" 

"We just don't have the time" 

"We're not trained for it" 

"Maybe, next year 


"We believe strongly in a PLAN FOR 

THE MAN for it: ' 

# is based on need 

# helps men grow 

• unleashes creativity by providing 

challenge, motivation, inspiration" 

a Manager and Supervisor are used interchangeably throughout the 

This booklet is biased in favor of the planning approach to 
development. The alternatives are letting things drift, hit-and- 
miss development, limited accomplishment, and running the risk 
of having a work force whose potential is not only untapped but 
is in danger of stultification and vegetation. 

Why Management Development? 

The National Park Service is interested in the development of 
all its managers 3 for a number of reasons. 

1. To broaden outlooks. The problems of management are 
growing in greater complexity each year. This is a result of the 
many forces which impinge on the Service's work — social, eco- 
nomic, technological, political, demographic, cultural, and inter- 
national. It thus is essential that our managers (and other 
personnel, too) be broadened to: 

A. Think beyond the boundaries of their own office or park. 

B. Cope with the many problems of change. 

C. Counteract the limited outlooks which all too often result 
from long performance in a specialized job or a professional field. 

D. Help merge the professional (program) and management 
side of the manager's job. The more effective manager is one 
who recognizes that the manager's job is like two tracks of a 
railroad, both being highly essential to effective operation. Thus, 



if one aspect of the job is given improper emphasis, the operation 
cannot proceed smoothly. 

3 Many of the ideas in this booklet obviously will also pertain to non- 
managerial employees, too. 

2. To increase time perspective. The National Park Service is 
a planning agency having programs which look ahead into the 
next and future decades. What is needed is a shift from day-to- 
day "crisis" management to a long-range view. 

3. To equip men to handle a 
complex job. A manager's job to- 
day is an extremely complicated 
one. To that extent positive, 
planned and continuing develop- 
ment is essential. The manager's 
job, shown in the diagram on 
page 5, consists of an interdepend- 
ent and complex set of factors. 
Each of these must be taken into 
consideration as we plan individ- 
ual training and development. 

Basic to the development of 
present and future managers is a 
clear understanding of the things 
they must know. Every organi- 
zation head, of course, has his own 
ideas of what the manager's job is 
and what makes a good executive 

or supervisor. However, most officials will agree generally with 
this breakdown of necessary knowledges and skills. 

Not everyone will require training in all phases of the manager's 
job. This will vary with the needs, experience, present work 
assignment, and potential of the individual. Some may also 
require training in various technical (as opposed to management) 
subjects. However, experience to date indicates that as one 
ascends the management ladder a mastery of the elements in the 
chart is essential to successful development in breadth. 



Understanding of: (a) The 
Units of Government outside the 
NPS— The Department; other 
Departments; the Executive Office; 
the Congress; the role of Staff and 
Control Agencies; e.g., CSC, Budget 
Bureau, GAO, GSA. (b) Role of: Infor- 
mational Media; Private groups & Associ- 
ations; other levels of Government. 

Understanding of the forces out- 
side the Government that influence 
what can or should be done or are 
affected by what is or is not being 
done; (e.g., the economy; changing tech- 
nology; population trends). 

Techniques for integrating work opera- 
tion—organization, budgeting, 
personnel management, method 
improvement, and balancing of line 
and staff. 

Techniques of Leadership! Planning, 
Decision Making, Developing Staff, 
Communicating, Coordinating, 
Delegating, Motivating, Innovating. 


Another way of appreciating the nature and complexity of the 
manager's job is by studying this diagrammatic presentation 
(based upon the three-skill breakdown developed by Professor 
Robert Katz of Harvard University) . 

GS-14 & above 



GS-5— 9 

This diagram points up that : 

A. human skills are vital at all levels of management, although 
they obviously will differ in kind at the higher grade levels. 

B. technical skills (professional, program or subject matter 
skills) become less significant at the higher grade levels. 

C. the conceptual skills (i.e., broad-gauge, long-range thinking 
and problem-solving) become more important as one goes up the 

4. To help men realize potential. All of us are what we are 
due to a combination of factors; heredity, physiological develop- 
ment, and psychological growth. However, despite these limiting 
factors, most of us and our subordinates can do more if we are 
subject to additional encouragement, training and development; 
in short, to the unleashing of potential. 



„, wide gap 

without training 



reduced gap 
with training 


Many employees have aspirations which are in keeping with 
their potential (capabilities). To the extent that we help to 
close the gap between achievement and aspiration, we are tapping 
potential. Also, by reducing the gap between the two, we can 
reduce a cause of much dissatisfaction, frustration, and vegetation. 

5. To keep men alive. As we stated above, people can do much 
more than they often are encouraged or permitted to do. It is 
the manager's job, then, to ensure that people receive challenge, 
stimulation, and opportunity so that they are constantly alert and 

Many observers of the management development movement 
have noted that the biggest problem of management and manage- 
ment development is to overcome the feeling in managers (and 
others) that they have arrived — 
for once that happens, new and 
dynamic approaches to the orga- 
nization's problems are very diffi- 
cult or impossible. 

6. To bring men along faster. 
Our subordinates will learn man- 
agement as well and as rapidly as 
we want them to. Conversely, if 
development is not planned, if it 
emphasizes the "school of experi- 
ence" approach, development will 
be spotty and slow. 

Every organization, including the National Park Service, re- 
quires a corps of alert, growing, and sophisticated managers. A 
surplus of such talent is unlikely. It is therefore essential that 
we work continually and positively at the development of our 
managerial force. 

7. To provide for continuity. 
Every organization is necessarily 
concerned with succession. Sur- 
vival and growth depend upon a 
reservoir of capable managers who 
are able to fill new and vacated 
positions. By constant attention 
to development, succession can be 
accomplished without crisis. To 
the extent that we cannot fill 
managerial jobs readily, we have 
failed in our responsibilities to the 


660081 O — 62- 

8. To discharge Service responsibilities more effectively. In 
the last analysis, management development must evidence signif- 
icant "payoffs" for the Service. This may be better visitor service, 
better communications, participative management, more self- 
development activity, greater delegation of responsibility, more 
team work, better problem-solving, the creation of a larger "man- 
agement pool" for selection purposes, etc. In general, results 
will accrue to both the Service and to individual managers if we 
work conscientiously at the development task. 



**V*fc_ •J(#''«|t 



Principles of Development 

"Management Development" is a relatively new term for an 
old process. Actually, the Service always has been developing 
executives, managers, and supervisors. You, therefore, should 
be able to develop your managers around everyday job activities. 
But to do this more effectively, you should base your development 
activities on these principles : 

1. Keep your program job-oriented as opposed to concern with 
personality traits. While we are interested in such personality 
traits as initiative, neatness, enthusiasm, loyalty, integrity, and 
decisiveness, and certainly hope that all our staff rank high on 
these qualities, these traits are all-too-often abstract items which 
are hard to define, hard to get agreement with a subordinate as 
to what they mean and how important they are to a given job, 
and harder to bring about any real improvement in them. There- 
fore, why not discuss the job and job standards (which are tangi- 
ble things) and the situations where progress was not made or 
where problems arose, and to develop plans jointly to see that 
these difficulties do not arise again? 

Then, too, a primary purpose of management development is 
to improve the ability of managers to work effectively with others 
in the organization. Our concern is not to turn out "organiza- 
tion men", but more effective managers who retain their basic 

In general, personality is viewed differently by different people 
whereas performance is perceived with greater reliability and 
consistency. People know how to improve their results on the 
job; they seldom know how to change their personalities. There 
are tremendous opportunities for managerial improvement in 

such areas as work planning, delegation, communication, prob- 
lem-solving approaches, conduct of staff meetings, staff develop- 
ment, etc., without getting into the quicksand of personality 
rating and improvement. 

2. Development proceeds best when it is based on self-appraisal. 
Why? Simply because a man can accept criticism from himself 
more readily than from anyone else. If you can encourage a man 
to reflect upon his own accomplishments, progress, shortcomings 
and weaknesses, you avoid putting him in a position where he 
has to accept criticisms and advice solely from you. 


i I i | ' | ' | i I i 1 1 | i | ' I i I i I i I ' 


3. In addition, development must also provide for "feedback" 
from others, principally yourself, regarding your subordinate's 
performance. An individual must have adequate data regarding 
how his performance is perceived by someone else before he can 
change it. The assumption that most people don't want or 
can't take feedback about their performance is a rationalization 
set forth by timid managers. Adults want to know how they are 

4. Provide your managers and supervisors with high expecta- 
tions and standards. If they are content with operations as they 


are, improvement in programs and their own development is not 
possible. Provide challenge with a dynamic environment, new and 
higher goals, and a constant search for new and better ways 
of doing the job. Your managers 
should appreciate that the old 
saw "We grow as long as we're 
green" applies to both programs 
and people. 

5. Development is the respon- 
sibility of the individual. You, 

as the supervisor, can provide the stimulation, encouragement, 
active interest, and organization resources; in short, the proper 
climate. But the individual must possess and use the energy, the 
drive and the initiative required to develop his talents. The 
key idea here is self-development 
as opposed to "spoon-feeding" 
by the organization. Encourage 
your subordinates to participate in 
outside activities such as Toast- 
masters Clubs, educational courses, 
and professional and community 
affairs. Taking the "risk" of a 
lateral transfer is also a worth- 
while form of self-development. 

6. Provide for individualized, 

tailor-made development programs. Since all managers have dif- 
ferent strong points and weaknesses, their training needs will 
vary. The several approaches described in the section "How to 
Develop A PLAN FOR THE MAN" starting on page 23 will give 
you the tools to help meet individual needs. 

7. Development is best approached from the standpoint of 
doing one's present job better. This may be greater skill in plan- 


ning or delegating work ; in budget preparation ; or improving skill 
in writing, speaking, listening, or leading conferences. 

Development for the assumption of higher responsibility is a sec- 
ondary goal (see page 20, "Relation to Promotion Program" and 
page 36, "Discussion Regarding Career Goals"). Promotion 
will come if we do a good development job in the "here and now." 

8. Don't operate the program 
as a "closed corporation" for 
a favored few. All supervisors, 
managers, and executives should 
participate to varying degrees, 
depending upon their needs. Our 
philosophy in the National Park 
Service is a democratic as opposed 
to a "crown prince" approach to 
management development. Also, 
rare is the manager who per- 
forms his job so perfectly that no further development is neces- 
sary. In a comprehensive development program, therefore, we 
need to: 

a. Improve the performance of present managers: 

• first line supervisors and foremen 

• middle management 

• executives 

b. Convert technicians into managers and supervisors. 

c. Convert specialists into generalists (at least in outlook if not 
in actual job assignment) . 

9. Development which emphasizes management must begin 
early in a man's career and be a continuing process from then on. 
The alternative is management learning by trial and error. It 
is also the best means to help those who supervise others to Acquire 
a "self-concept" of a manager as opposed to that of a subject- 
matter expert, technician, or "program specialist." 


10. Developing managers is a continuous, ever-present task. 
It is not someththing that can be done in six weeks or six months. 
Nor can it be done by an occasional quickie course on "Manage- 
ment Principles." 

11. People learn from people. The examples set by the top 
executive (s) and managers will determine the way subordinates 
approach their problems. This is particularly true in such vital 
areas as communications, human relations, motivation, delegation 
of authority, and development of one's staff. Good management 
can't be learned in a poorly managed outfit. 

12. We learn best by doing. 
The training, therefore, should 
emphasize active participation and 
performance, provide opportuni- 
ties for the solving of real prob- 
lems, developing policy and 
program, and making decisions. 

13. Delegation is a basic tool to encourage motivation, crea- 
tivity, and development. Don't be afraid to "give people enough 
rope." The alternative is to 
encourage dependence upon you. 

14. Managers need broadened 
outlooks. Unless you work at this 
diligently, specialization and nar- 
row outlooks are inevitable. 
Therefore, you should think in 
terms of "job enlargement" as 
opposed to job specialization and 

job fractionalization. If you operate your organization on the 
basis of watertight compartments, the byproducts will be these: 
creation of "experts" who know little and care less of anyone 
else's activities; limited interaction among staff; limited coopera- 
tion among staff; creation of "stars" rather than a tram. Spe- 
cialists have their place in every organization, of course; but 



specialization has to be tempered with concern for motivation, 
development, and teamwork. 

15. Experiences acquired within the organization are most 
meaningful and useful. To the extent that training is based on 
situations and problems within the Service, development will be 
most effective. We have enough "know how" to make our 
managers more effective; the real challenge is to provide oppor- 
tunities for the necessary learning and growth. 

16. But let your subordinate supervisors get away from their 
jobs now and then and get a new look at their job and the Service. 
It will keep them fresh and help them understand better the pur- 
pose of their work. Outside contacts will enlarge their horizons. 


Climate, Motivation, and Creativity 

A vital role of the manager is that of unleashing creativity. 
This means that he must be consciously concerned with the kind 
of climate he sets. For training, development and growth of 
people will be successful only if the climate is right. 

As a "climate-setter," then, the manager should recognize that 
his staff will perceive him as : 

Cold or Warm 
Aloof or Friendly 
Autocratic or Permissive 
Judgmental or Sympathetic 
Rushed or Relaxed. 

Only to the extent that the manager is encouraging, helpful, 
and supportive, and takes into account 

• peoples' attitudes, feelings, motivations, drives, and personal 


660081 0—62- 

• peoples' needs for belonging, recognition, respect, participa- 
tion, challenge, and accomplishment, 

is he effective in setting a climate which can unleash potential. 
In the absence of such a climate, we have to accept these inevita- 
ble byproducts — haphazard and slow development, limited job 
interest, mediocre performance, and "carrying" staff members. 
The manager who is aware of the importance of climate-setting 
and wishes to work at it in a sincere and constructive way, will 
find of great value the recent research findings on motivation of 
the Survey Research Center of the University of Michigan. Their 
findings point up that individuals respond to these positive, driv- 
ing forces or motivations : 

Self-expression. People want the opportunity to discover, 
develop, and show their strongest aptitudes, abilities, and talents. 

New experience. People want their abilities and interests stim- 
ulated through varied duties and responsibilities. 

S elf -determination. People want freedom of choice in making 
decisions which affect them and their work. In a democratic 
society it is quite understandable that people will want "to experi- 
ence alternatives." Thus, participation and involvement are vital 
tools which the manager can use to motivate stafT. 

Completion or closure. People want freedom to carry a job 
through to its final accomplishment. 

Ego enhancement. People have a need for accomplishment 
so that they can increase ( 1 ) their own self-esteem or self-respect 
and (2) the amount of recognition or praise they receive from 

Of major significance, too, is the fact that these drives relate 
to nonmaterial, nonfinancial needs. Also, for many people these 
needs cannot ever be completely satisfied. They, therefore, are 
tremendous motivators. Conversely, financial rewards are of 
much lesser effectiveness as motivators. Why? Because they 
provide (at best) a temporary stimulus, they ignore higher-level 
needs, they overlook individual differences, they may not be re- 


lated to daily problems and productivity, and basically there are 
limits to the amount of financial incentives we can provide. 

To appreciate more fully the 
needs which people have, the 
diagram "Hierarchy of Needs" 
(based on the ideas of the noted 
psychologist Abraham Maslow) 
merits study. 

• Physical needs relate to air, 
water, food, warmth, etc. In W^ 
our culture, based on a high 
standard of living these needs INNER SATISFACTION? 
are usually met adequately. And 

to the extent that they are met adequately, they no longer serve 
as motivators. 

• Safety or security needs encompass such elements as order, 
stability, predictability, fairness. If the individual encounters 
unfair decisions, discrimination and changes which he can't 
understand, he may feel he is under "psychological attack" and 
regard such actions as threats to his security. 

• Social needs are met through a feeling of belonging to a 
group, having friends, and being accepted. 

• Ego needs relate to wishes we have for status (recognition by 
others) and self-respect (we all have to live with ourselves). 

• Self -fulfillment needs cover the highest level aspirations we 
have. It relates to the fullest possible realization of our poten- 
tial. All of us like to feel we are doing something which is 
really worthwhile, accomplishing and creating on a high per- 
sonal level — in short, meeting our personal goals. 

For the manager, these ideas relating to the needs of people 
are significant : 

A. A lower need must be satisfied before the next higher one 
is effective. 

B. As one need is satisfied, others gain in importance. 


C. The higher-level needs are the best motivators because they 
are never met fully. 

D. Concern with staff development, particularly via the PLAN 
FOR THE MAN, is a fundamental tool to help people meet their 
higher-level needs. 

A tool to meet higher 



Relation to Performance Rating Plan 

The PLAN FOR THE MAN concept is not a rating plan. An 
adjective rating is not used and has no meaning under this pro- 
gram. There are no regulatory procedures and requirements 
which specify certain actions. All we are concerned with is the 
individual himself and the answers to such overall questions as: 
How can his performance be improved? How can he improve 
himself? How can we better utilize him? What is his potential 
with the Service? 

No record of the PLAN FOR THE MAN is placed in the indi- 
vidual's personnel folder. As a matter of fact, no special form 
is required. A blank sheet of paper is adequate. It should 
provide information dealing with goals, standards of performance, 
and data relating to an individual's performance for purposes of 
appraisal, evaluation and planned development. What is de- 
sired is to invite the attention of the employee to that part of his 
job which may be in need of remedial action or strengthening. 
This is a matter of individual awareness — the subordinate's recog- 
nition and consideration. 

The performance rating plan, as required by law, has other 
official purposes; e.g., to determine eligibility for within-grade 
promotion and to provide data in case of RIF. To that extent it 
is a useful and separate tool. By keeping this phase of the person- 
nel program distinct, we can do a better development job. 


Relation to Promotion Program 

The PLAN FOR THE MAN idea is aimed at meeting indi- 
vidual needs. The subordinate participates with his supervisor in 
planning his own development to meet organizational goals more 
effectively, to achieve better performance and better utilization, to 
improve his own ability, and to increase potential (if appropriate) . 
As an individual completes phases of planned development, his 
official personnel folder is documented to show completion of 
courses or participation in various types of training, such as Job 
Rotation, Management Seminars, Reading Improvement, Public 
Speaking, Conference Leadership, General Administration Train- 
ing Course, participation in community affairs, and activity in 
civic organizations. 

Improvement of the individual's performance is the primary 
concern. Naturally, in helping an individual to improve, there 
are several byproducts. He develops additional skills, knowledge, 
and abilities and is able to qualify for additional responsibilities 
which otherwise may be left to pure chance. He may qualify 
for promotional opportunities faster than otherwise — but, these 
are concurrent benefits. This program is aimed primarily at the 
improvement and better utilization of the subordinate. 

If we do our training and development solely with promotion 
rungs in mind, we generate restlessness, transiency, and dissatisfac- 
tion. Reasonable employees will be interested in increasing both 
their own job competence and their worth to their employer, 
even when a promotion remains some distance away. Although 
in many instances planned development will enhance an em- 
ployee's opportunity for promotion, self-development rather than 
promotion is the primary goal. 


Under the Service's Merit Promotion Plan, every employee must 
state his career objectives and how he plans to reach them, when 
completing Form 10-89, Employee Skills Inventory— Appraisal, 
after having a discussion with his supervisor. This requirement 
of a discussion provides a natural opportunity for the supervisor to 
put into effect the PLAN FOR THE MAN program, coordinating 
it with the lateral transfer and promotion programs of the Service. 

The PLAN FOR THE MAN program is a challenge to every 
manager and supervisor in the National Park Service. It is the 
most direct approach toward building careers through increased 
knowledge, skills, and potentials resulting from specific and 
planned actions. It requires wholehearted interest, support, and 
cooperation by the management staff. It can produce results 
highly beneficial to the Service and to its personnel. 





^vS M> 



How to Start the Development Job 

There obviously is more than one way to approach the job of 
development of staff. The important elements, however, are : 


A. To have a well-thought-out 
philosophy regarding the develop- 
ment of people. If one is sin- 
cerely interested in the develop- 
ment of staff, selecting the 
methods to be used will be rela- 
tively easy. 

B. To select a method (or pos- 
sibly a combination of methods) 
which fits your own leadership 
style, the climate in your park or 
office, and the realities of the 
supervisor — subordinate relation- 

C. To come up with a mutually agreed upon PLAN FOR 
THE MAN. This is fundamental. For if the subordinate does 
not know clearly in what areas he needs strengthening, and that 
you are really interested in his improvement, no development is 
possible. Also, unless the plan is one that is mutually agreed 
upon, the motivation to carry it out is external ( supervisory pres- 
sure) rather than internal (personal conviction as to need). 


How to Develop 

If you are sincerely convinced that A PLAN FOR THE MAN 
is worth the effort and time, you will do a good job. Before 
you start, however, you may wish to review pages 43-44 regarding 
some of the pitfalls which you may encounter. Also, the Appen- 
dix has several invaluable exhibits which merit your close study. 

A PLAN FOR THE MAN can be approached in various ways. 
It can be done via: 

1. A discussion of the problems in the work situation which the 
subordinate faces. 

2. The establishment of mutually agreed upon goals and targets 
for the year. 

3. The establishment of mutually agreed upon written job 
requirements or standards of performance. 

4. The feeding back of data regarding development needs as 
agreed upon by an appraisal panel. 

5. A discussion regarding career goals. 

6. A combination of the above approaches. 

Let's discuss each of the first five techniques in more detail. 

A Discussion of the Problems which the Subordinate Faces in 
His Work Situation 

A. Philosophy behind this approach. As the supervisor you 
should start the discussion without any preconceptions regard- 
ing the development plan the man needs. Your aim is to estab- 
lish a climate for easy communication, and to stimulate thinking 
and discussion. But to encourage your subordinate to bring up 


DEVELOPMENT — Do your subordinates 
have the information they need for 
better performance? 

his problems, you must be willing to avoid bringing up your own 
solution or remedies regarding his needs and be willing to listen. 
Your role is that of an understanding helper rather than that 
of a "judge" and "expert." 

According to Dr. Norman R. F. Maier of the University of 
Michigan, problem-solving behavior is characterized by the ex- 
ploration and evaluation of a variety of solutions. It is hindered 
by putting someone on the spot; rather, you should focus atten- 
tion on the situation. Try to avoid the creation of defensive or 
face-saving behavior, for your subordinate can't change in any 
way if his behavior is being attacked. You must listen, accept, 
and respond to his feelings. Restating his ideas in different 
words is a good way for you to show him that you are trying to 
listen and understand. Ask applicatory, stimulating, and non- 
threatening questions. Summarize regularly, too. Make use of 
pauses, listen, wait; don't be a cross-examiner. 

In general, you are trying to stimulate upward communication, 
to place mutual interest above personal interests, to solve 


B. Conducting the interview. To help you get started in your 
interview, the questions in the box on page 26 will be helpful. 

After you have learned of your subordinate's accomplishments 
and on-the-job problems, enough of a climate will have been estab- 
lished for you to bring up some of the job problems which have 
been bothering you, items which he did not mention. It may 
also be that it may not be necessary to bring up some of those 
points because of the learnings you have gained in the discussion. 

Also, in this discussion elements of inadequate or weak per- 
formance may come up. Since they will be related to problems 
on the job, this is all to the good. For in this way they can be 
discussed and resolved in a job-related context. 

Finally, in the interview ideas should be generated on a mutual 
basis on how strongpoints can be built upon and weaknesses over- 
come. In short, development needs should be spotted and plans 
for action to meet these needs prepared. 

C. End products. If the inter- 
view has proceeded on a problem- 
solving basis with candor, as 
opposed to face-saving by you and 
your subordinate, these end prod- 
ucts should emerge: 

1. Agreement on accomplish- 

2. Agreement on the job problems which exist. 

3. Mutually developed and agreed upon plans to resolve these 

4. Identification and agreement on strongpoints and weak- 
nesses in performance. 

5. Preparation of A PLAN FOR THE MAN designed to meet 
development needs. One that (a) builds on strongpoints and 
regards weaknesses as opportunities for growth and (b) is mutu- 
ally developed and concurred in will produce the best results. A 
sample PLAN FOR THE MAN is given in the appendix. Exhibit 


Sample Questions and Comments for Use in the Problem- 
Solving Approach 

A. Questions 

1. What aspects of the job seem to work out well? 

2. What aspects of the job give you the greatest 

3. What should we be doing that we aren't? 

4. What might we do better here? 

5. To what degree is this a problem? 

6. What caused this problem? 

7. Do you have any ideas how it can be licked? 

8. What else would this involve? 

9. Who else would need to be brought in on it? 

B. Intermittent Comments to Encourage Feedback 

1 . I would like you to explain this a bit more. 

2. That's quite understandable. Tell me more. 

3. Uh,Huh. 

4. Let me check this with you to be sure that I under- 
stood you ( Repeat what was said ) . 

5. You feel that . . . 

6. Uh,Huh. 

7. Let me see if I can sum up what you've said. 

Goal Setting on a Mutual Basis 

Another effective approach to staff development is through the 
establishment of goals or targets. Dr. Peter Drucker, an out- 
standing management authority, terms this "management by 
objectives." Other names for this are programmed management 
and planned performance programming. 

A. Assumptions and values. The assumptions underlying this 
approach are that : 

1. It is just as important to devote time to establishing goals at 
the outset of a year as it is to try to evaluate performance at the 


end of the year. In fact, evaluation is possible only if real targets 
have been set in the first place. 

2. It encourages the subordinate to become an active agent, 
one who takes the initiative in charting his course. Coercion, 
manipulation, pressure, and "selling" regarding weaknesses are 
absent in this process; rather, the opportunity to function with 
maximum independence and to improve one's abilities, skills, 
performance, and goal setting prowess becomes the motivator. 

3. It shifts the emphasis from appraisal, particularly of a 
judgemental character, to one of analysis. Here your subordinate 
is examining himself constructively, not only as to opportunities 
for improvement but also as to strengths (and possibly potential) . 

4. It gives your subordinate a chance to work on organizational 
needs (goals or targets relating to the program or job) and to 
show management that he is an effective goal setter. 

5. It uses a philosophy basic to the most effective counseling 
situation — namely, that the individual can play a major role in 
identifying his needs and will more readily correct those which 
he himself recognizes. 

6. The emphasis, in the last analysis, is on program results, 
job performance, and development (as opposed to attempts at 
will-of-the-wisp "personality improvements" ) . 

B. Procedures. This is the way it works : 

• Your subordinate establishes on a tentative basis short-term 
goals (about 6 to 12 months) for himself. This is done after 
he has thought about his job, its requirements, his performance, 
his strongpoints, and his opportunities for growth. 

• The subordinate comes up with specific plans and procedures 
to meet these goals and his development needs. 

• You then discuss with him (1) the goals, (2) his plans to 
meet these goals, and (3) his self-appraisal regarding perform- 
ance and development needs. 

• Mutually agreed upon targets or goals are then set up for the 
6 to 12 months, including the specific actions as to how these 


goals are to be met; e.g., if an 
agreed upon goal is "to improve 
communication with staff" the 
specifics might include regularly 
scheduled staff meetings, visits to 
subordinates at their work site, 
taking subordinates along to 
meetings and on field trips, a 
greater share by subordinates in 
developing plans and policies, etc. 
At the same time a discussion is 
held regarding performance and 
development needs. 

The end products which result from this process are: 

(1) A set of goals and targets (See Appendix, Exhibit II for 
sample) . 

( 2 ) A PLAN FOR THE MAN ( See Appendix, Exhibit IV ) . 

• At the end of the 6 to 12 month period, your subordinate 
evaluates his own progress in meeting his goals and his develop- 
ment. He then discusses it with you as his supervisor. Agree- 
ment is then reached on progress, the new targets needed for the 
next period, and the development needs which are still evident. 

Setting Performance Standards 

Standard setting is a device to help your subordinates to think 
constructively about their jobs. In this way they can see where 
and how they can improve their work and their skills. If you are 
a golfer, you know that you can't evaluate your accomplishment 
and improve your skill unless you know what is par for the course. 

A. Values of performance standards. In a more specific way, 
there are numerous advantages to setting standards. These 

1. It defines authority and responsibility in relation to the 
specific objectives of the job. The typical job description does not 
get into this area. 


2. It helps to focus attention on all aspects of the job and the 
total operation. If standards have to be developed the job will 
have to be studied in a meaningful fashion. 

3. It provides a basis for evaluating in an objective way what 
was done; what needs to be done, how well it was done, and how 
it can be done better. 

4. It encourages the individual to examine his operation and 
himself. Without self-appraisal by your subordinates, you can 
only provide "feedback" to them from on high; the problem then 
becomes one of "selling" performance results as you, the boss, 
see it. But only to the extent that the man reflects on his own 
performance, is real improvement 


5. It provides a positive tool for 
development of stafT. If accom- 
plishment is known in relation to 
standards, a basis for development 
becomes logical and possible. 

6. It increases (and thereby im- 
proves) communication between 
the man and his boss. Numerous 

studies have demonstrated clearly and tragically that all too often 
people do not know what their superiors expect and what aspects 
of the job the boss considers the most important. 
B. Procedure. 

1. Let your subordinate make the initial start at developing 
the standards. Why? To the extent that he participates in the 
development of the standards, the greater is the likelihood that he 
will try to meet them. People are more likely to want to abide 
by the rules they have created themselves, and thus believe in. as 
opposed to those which someone has set up and imposes upon 

2. Your subordinate should study his job sheet, manuals, orga- 
nization charts, and other official documents which relate generally 
to what is to be done. 


3. Your subordinate should then block out, tentatively, areas 
where results can be evaluated. This should be checked with 
and reviewed by you for appropriateness, and agreement reached 
on them. Note: It is not necessary for minor aspects of the job 
to be subject to standards development. 

4. The subordinate should then develop tentative standards 
of performance. He should write them in terms of the conditions 
or end results that will exist when he has met the standards. This 
may be a quantitative result; or quality; development of certain 
plans or programs; meeting of priorities and deadlines; or con- 
trolling cost. They should be discussed thoroughly with you. 
This "step is essential to ensure that the standards are specific, 
clear, attainable, and understood and accepted by both parties. 
See Appendix, Exhibit III "Setting Standards of Performance for 
Managerial Positions." 

5. For maximum benefit to the park or office, the standards 
should be reviewed at the next higher echelon. 

6. Simultaneously with the establishment of standards, the indi- 
vidual works up a tentative plan regarding his own development 
needs. This is essential to ensure that the job standards are 
really met. It is then reviewed by you. 

7. A PLAN FOR THE MAN, mutually agreed upon, is then 
prepared. This will cover ways to improve your subordinate's 
performance and to ensure future progress on the job. Depend- 
ing on the man and his needs, it may also deal with a develop- 
ment plan to tap his potential. A sample PLAN FOR THE 
MAN is shown in the Appendix, Exhibit IV. 

8. At an agreed upon interval (e.g., 6 months), you should 
check results in relation to the standards and THE PLAN FOR 

9. You, as the supervisor, should encourage your subordinate 
to analyze the reasons for his "successes" and "shortcomings" in 
relation to targets, standards and the development plan. 

10. You then review the tentative findings of your subordinate, 
as above, discuss them with him, and suggest that he develop 


new standards, and work up a new development plan to overcome 
the weaknesses which were evidenced in the review process. 

11. As a result of the above steps, a new set of targets and 
standards and A PLAN FOR THE MAN are developed and the 
process begins all over again. 

Some Key Points in Setting Performance Standards 

1. Be sure to involve your staff. This is the motivational 
key to its success. 

2. Don't set standards which are impossible to reach and 
thus produce frustration and discouragement. 

3. On the other hand, do set standards high enough to 
stretch the ability of your subordinates. 

4. In the follow-up session, acknowledge special circum- 
stances which may have prevented meeting of the standards. 

5. Check primarily for results, accomplishments, prog- 
ress. Let subordinates concentrate on the how. 

Feedback of Data as Agreed Upon by an Appraisal Panel 

A. What it is. An appraisal panel may be set up to assist you 
in evaluating performance, progress, career potential, etc. Its 
purpose is to help you to do a more effective job of staff develop- 
ment. It does this through the multiple judgment principle; that 
is, the ideas, information and questions of the panel members m;.\ 
help to stimulate and sharpen your thinking about the develop- 
ment of your subordinates. 

B. How it works. Three or more people, all at a higher organi- 
zational level than the appraisee, meet as a panel to discus youi 
subordinate manager's performance and potential. You are the 
chairman of the panel. The appraisee may be permitted to selecl 
one or two of the other appraisers. Only items which arc agreed 
upon unanimously by the panel become the basis for the appraisal. 


After the panel has met, the appraisal is reviewed by the apprais- 
er's superior for adequacy. 

The appraisal is then communicated to the appraisee in a coun- 
seling session. For the most effective results, the Mutual Prob- 
lem-Solving approach should be followed (see page 23). This 
means the panel's findings are held in abeyance and your sub- 
ordinate is encouraged to discuss his job problems. This discus- 
sion, if conducted in an encouraging, non-threatening atmosphere, 
will bring up automatically many or most of the points which the 
panel agreed upon. By this time the appraisee should be receptive 
to any additional points which the appraiser believes should be 
communicated to the appraisee. 

C. Responsibility. You, as the supervisor, are the one who is 
responsible for the appraisal, even though you secure advice from 
the other panelists. You alone meet with the appraisee in the 
counseling session. 

D. Unique values and features. 

• Since a panel must be convened, this serves as an effective 
reminder to you, the appraiser, that you must really do the 
job rather than to defer it indefinitely. 

• A more thorough job will be done since ( 1 ) you will have 
secured guidance and advice from the others on the panel, (2) 
the presence of other panel members will ensure that you will 
take more time and care to do a fair and thorough job of 
evaluating performance, progress, strongpoints, and weaknesses. 

• As the appraiser, you may learn as much about your own 
managerial prowess as the appraisee. This may happen in 
both the panel meeting and in your discussion with the 

• The emphasis is on individual development needs. To this 
extent, it does something which is meaningful to the appraisee 
and productive to the Service. 

• It is a line program conducted by and for the line. 

• It is a cyclical program ensuring adequate review and follow- 



jp\ €h 


The conclusions of 
the panel are re- 
viewed by the next 
higher level of man- 
agement. A discus- 
sion is held re. its 


An annual review by 
a panel of the per- 
formance of each 
manager or supervisor. 


A definite training 
plan and schedule 
worked out by the 
superior and the 


The discussion of the 
appraisal with the 
ndividual by his im- 
mediate superior. 


• It concentrates on job performance as opposed to the never- 
neverland of personality traits. 

• It emphasizes self-development. 

• It is democratic in that it involves all who manage others 
(or at least all at and above a given grade level) . 

• It is a simple system. No special forms are required. 

• It is buttressed by a sincere philosophy involving a strong 
faith in people and their dignity as human beings, a belief in 
their improvability, and a determined willingness to help in 
unleashing their potential. 

E. Misconceptions about this system. The group appraisal 
system is often subject to misconceptions. Some of these are: 

• That the appraisee will select "friends" to serve on the 
panel to secure a favorable appraisal. Experience has proven 
that appraisees are more likely to select severe critics. Why? 
Because they want advice and guidance to help them in their 
development; a "whitewash" by friends won't do this. Actu- 
ally, "friends" can be objective critics because they really know 
the man well and want to help him, too. 

• That the other appraisers need to be thoroughly familiar with 
the appraisee's work. This is not correct. The purpose of 
the other appraisers is simply to raise significant questions (see 
box on page 35) which the supervisor (the appraiser) may not 
think of himself. Often, however, the other panel members 
may be familiar with the appraisee's work ; if so, this is all to the 
good, but not absolutely essential. 

• That it takes away authority from the boss. On the con- 
trary — by helping him to do a better development job, it makes 
him a more effective and respected supervisor. Also, the 
responsibility for "feedback" about the appraisal and the actual 
development is the supervisor's responsibility. 

• That one must be a psychologist or a highly trained coun- 
selor to discuss performance with a subordinate. But this is 
not the case. All that is really needed is a desire to help people 
plus certain interviewing skills such as the ability to (a) estab- 


Questions for Panel Members to Help the Appraiser 

• You believe he is weak in Could you give us 

an example or two? 

• What is the frequency of this? 

• Did you ever talk to him about this? What was his 

• What help did you provide to aid him in overcoming 
this weakness? 

• Is this really a make-or-break aspect of the job? 

• You believe he has some personality traits which are 
poor? What are they? Do they really affect job 

• What does he do best? 

• How is he as a delegator? As a communicator? As 
a motivator of people? As a developer of staff? As a 
planner? As an organizer? As a team worker? Is he cost 

• What are the individual's ambitions within the Service? 

• Is he satisfied with his progress? 

• What plans have you made with your subordinate to 
improve his management competence during the next year? 

• If he has indicated that he desires more responsibility, 
what plans does he have to prepare for it? Have you 
helped in any way? 

• If you consider him suitable for a higher-level position, 
what have you done to help him with his self-improvement 

lish a friendly atmosphere, (b) encourage people to talk, (c) 
listen, and (d) solve problems in a joint way. 

• That it is unduly time consuming. A determined and sin- 
cere effort to appraise and develop staff will certainly take 


time. The questions, which are more pertinent, however, are : 
Am I really satisfied with the performance I'm getting? Am 
I doing all I should be to unleash creativity and potential? 
Are we securing the maximum return from our investment in 
our people? Am I discharging my responsibility as a manager 
in the area of staff development? What is the alternative to 
this approach? One management writer put it this way: "Any 
outfit that isn't willing to invest 1 or 2 percent of its time on 
programs of this sort has no business playing around with man- 
agement development anyway." 

Discussion Regarding Career Goals 

The bulk of the job of developing subordinates relates to the 
current job: better performance, identifying and overcoming 
weaknesses, more progress, meeting deadlines, solving problems, 
etc. This is logical since: 

A. At any one time most employees are not being readied for 
advancement; e.g., a man may have just come on the job; or a 
subordinate may be a specialist who now needs broadening, stim- 
ulation or challenge but not necessarily promotion. 

B. Some employees may have reached the top of their career 
ladder; e.g., they may no longer be promotable because they 
may be determined specialists who want to stay in their own 
field, they are at the top of the grade ladder for their particular 
kind of work, they are approaching retirement, etc. 

However, for employees who are at the bottom of the career 
ladder, who have some or much potential ("the comers"), or 
who are not "satisfied" specialists, 
you have an obligation to counsel 
them about their future careers. 

Counseling a man about his ^v T^ OPPORTUNITY 

career doesn't require a Ph.D. in 
psychology. All it takes is : 

• an interest in the man. 

• a desire to be helpful. 



• a recognition that it is our obligation, as managers, to help 
people to move themselves along in a planned and positive way. 

• a knowledge of the questions to ask in such an interview 
(see box) . 

• practice — you'll probably do a better job the second time. 

• assigning time to do it. 

• completion of a PLAN FOR THE MAN emphasizing career 
development which you and the man feel is reasonable and 
attainable. Pin point both short and long-range goals and 
plans to meet such goals. 

• followup to see that progress on the plan is being 

Some Suggested Questions in Counseling for Career 


1. What satisfactions do you get from your job? 

2. Do you feel that your present type of work is the one 
in which you want to continue your career? 

3. What would you like to be doing 5 years from now? 
Ten years? 

4. What have you been doing to ready yourself for the 
career you favor? 

5. How do you use your leisure time? Is this the best use, 

6. Can the Service and I help you to reach your career 

7. Have you considered lateral transfer? Special 
courses? Job rotation? Toastmasters? Participation in 
civic and community affairs? 

8. Do you feel you have any weaknesses which you need 
to overcome to help your career? 


After the Interview 

Many managers are relieved when the performance interview 
or counseling session is over. They may feel that it is now some- 
thing they don't have to worry about for another 6 or 12 months. 
But the conscientious and saga- 
cious manager will ask himself two 
questions after the interview is 
completed : 

1. What kind of a job did I do 
and how can I make it better next 
time? (see box on page 39 for 
pertinent points to check). 

2. What action (followup) do I 
take now and for the next 6 
months to ensure that the PLAN 
FOR THE MAN is really carried 

out? The answer to this question involves setting dates to check 
on progress; carrying through on commitments, e.g., arranging for 
details to other jobs, special assignments, special courses, etc. ; and 
providing continuing encouragement and help as necessary. 


After the Interview 

A. Arrangements 

Did I do my "homework" in advance of the interview? 
Was the location adequate? 
Did I allow enough time? 

B. Starting Off 

Did I explain the purpose of our meeting adequately? 

Did I put him at ease? 

Who introduced the topics for discussion? 

C. In the Interview 

Did I feel comfortable? If not, why not and what can 

I do about it in the future? 

Did he feel comfortable? If not, what can I do about 

it next time? 

Did I try to listen and really understand? Did I 


Who did most of the talking? 

Was I a friendly helper or an aloof judge? 

D. Results 

Are our relationships strengthened? 

Will we be able to communicate more easily about 

targets, performance, progress, and problems? 

Do I now understand his problems and point of view 


What specific points did he bring up? 

Did I agree with all of them? 

If not, where did we disagree? 

What points did I add ? Did he agree to them ? 

Do we now have a PLAN FOR THE MAN that we both 

understand and believe to be workable? 


Techniques to Develop Managers 

As \ve have indicated, once your subordinate's needs for develop- 
ment have been identified, you will need to work up A PLAN 
FOR THE MAN. A basic ingredient of this plan is a set of 
specifics to meet the development needs. For example, if a new 
assistant superintendent has little experience in budget adminis- 
tration and needs such experience, he may be detailed to work on 
the budget, either park or regional, for several weeks; and, if 
practicable, he may be sent to a university which provides such 
training in a formal way. 

But to put the "how" of management development in broader 
perspective, we have prepared a chart "How to Develop Man- 




























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agers." You will note that the left side of the chart points up 
the "climate" factors for good development — challenge, high 
standards, good man-boss relationships, and counseling* The 
center right portion of the chart breaks training down into these 
major categories: Job Experience, Self-Development and In- 
Service Training. The top right side shows the end product — 
Successful Job Performance. 

Our second chart "Techniques You Can Use to Develop Your 
Managers" spells out in more helpful detail the different kinds of 
training which fall under these three categories. Descriptive in- 
formation regarding some of the more important development 
techniques is given in Appendix V. 


Making the PLAN FOR THE MAN 

Idea Succeed 

One idea common to the several approaches to the development 
of a PLAN FOR THE MAN is an emphasis on mutuality and 
cooperation. The key idea is "Give and Take" as opposed to 
"Tell and Sell." To do otherwise is to attempt to secure moti- 
vation for change through external pressures by yourself rather 
than through internal desires for change by your subordinate. 

Reference has been made earlier to the need to keep the dis- 
cussion job-oriented as opposed to concern with personality traits. 
In addition, it is possible to make your development activities 
sputter and stall through other undesirable approaches. For 

One study of a performance evaluation plan evidenced these 
reasons for employee dissatisfaction with it: 

1. There was an inclination to postpone or even avoid the 
appraisal discussions. This was attributed to the amount of 
work required for each appraisal, but evidently there were other 
reasons as well. 

2. The discussions were regarded as "formal" talks which 
strained the relationship between supervisor and employee. 

3. Employees being appraised did not always participate 
actively in the interview — they seemed to feel that they were 
called in merely to "hear what the manager had to say." 

4. Employees were inclined to disagree with their supervisor's 
evaluation unless the grounds for it were explained to them. 

5. The preparation of the personal improvement plan by man- 
agers was regarded as inconsistent with the concept of self- 


6. Employees felt that they were not receiving adequate guid- 
ance in improving their job performance or in preparing for 
more responsible work. 

The PLAN FOR THE MAN idea presents both a challenge 
and an opportunity, Mr. Supervisor. We think you can meet 
the challenge and will accept the opportunity. The second por- 
tion of this booklet provides guides and helps for this. 


Appendix I 

A Guide to the Conduct of Interviews on Performance 

and Development 

A basic tool for the manager who confers with his subordinate 
supervisors for development purposes is a list covering vital aspects 
of work performance. These sessions may cover information 
regarding : 

Organization and Planning Creativeness 

Judgment and Decision Leadership 

Making Working with Others 

Work Output Communications 

Quality of Work Delegating Responsibility 

Acceptance of Responsibility Developing Staff 

Cost Consciousness Job Knowledge 

Note: This list could be extended to include other managerial activities 
such as coordinating, timing, follow-through, and reporting (up and 
down), or these items could be included under the above items. 

To illustrate the kinds of questions you may wish to raise under 
each of these general categories, let us consider "Planning," 
"Organization," "Delegating Responsibility," "Communication," 
and "Motivating Staff" in more detail. 


1. Can he establish realistic long-range goals? 

2. Does he think in terms of objectives rather than details? 

3. Does he operate on the basis of planned projects rather than 
"fighting fires?" 


4. Does he define the problem? Explore alternate approaches? 
Have a firm basis for action before he starts to work? 

5. Does he use his staff in developing goals and plans to meet 

6. Does he budget his time or get bogged down in routine? 

7. Does he set standards and attempt to achieve them? 

8. What is his actual performance 

as compared with his own /% 

plans r 


1. Does he define purpose and 
policies? Determine the what- 
when-where-how much of re- 
sources (men, money, materi- 
als) needed? 

2. Does he practice the concept of "completed staff work' 
his superior and does he expect it of his staff? 

3. Does he periodically survey his organizational structure, 
assignments, and internal operating procedures? 


Delegating Responsibility 

1 . Does he take work home almost every night? 

2. Does he have little time for outside professional activity, 
recreation, study, civic work, etc? 

3. Is he "inaccessible" due to a heavy in-box, many telephone 
calls, etc? 

4. Is he frequently interrupted because others must come to him 
with questions, or for advice or decisions? 

5. Do his subordinates feel they should not make decisions them- 
selves, but should bring their problems to him? 

6. Does he insist on reviewing all or most items in draft? Does 
he spend undue amounts of time reviewing and perfecting out- 
going correspondence? 


7. Does he have unfinished jobs accumulating or difficulty meet- 
ing deadlines? Is he a "bottleneck"? 

8. Should he spend more of his 
time working on planning, 
supervising and building rela- 
tions with his staff? 

9. Does he feel that he must keep 
close watch on the details if 
someone is to do a job right? 

10. Does he keep job details secret 
from subordinates, so none of 
them will displace him? 

11. Does he neglect to ask sub- 
ordinates for their ideas about 
problems that arise? 

12. Does the office function properly when he is away on leave or 

13- Does he use his secretary to make his job easier? 




1. Is he a good listener? Does he daydream? Interrupt? 

2. Does he hold meetings with key members of his staff? Are 
they of the problem-solving type or primarily to pass informa- 
tion along? 

3. Is he an effective public speaker? 

4. Does he write clearly and concisely? 

5. Does he touch "base" with all interested parties to be sure that 
they know what is going on? 

6. Does he encourage others to talk freely? Does he want 
opinions and advice of others? 

7. Is he an active but considerate participant in meetings and 

8. Can he conduct a conference of peers (as opposed to subordi- 
nates) in a way that reflects favorably on his office and himself? 


Motivating Staff and Others 

1. Does he encourage participative management? Or is he auto- 

2. Has he developed a team? 

3. Do employees (and others) enjoy working with him? 

4. Does he command a high degree of respect and confidence by 
his staff? Others in the organization? 

5. Does he stimulate others to their best effort? How? 

6. Is his approach to motivation that of providing staff with 
challenge, opportunities for growth, and sense of accomplish- 
ment? Or does he get results because he is the boss? 

7. Does he bring out the best in people? 

8. Does he give credit where it is deserved; show appreciation 
when a job is well done? 



Appendix II 

Planned Performance Targets For Chief, Personnel 
Department, Bureau of Submarine Maintenance 

6 Month Period of January 1 to June 30 

Quantitative Targets 

1 . Reduce clerical costs in operating examining function : 

by 30 percent 

2. Increase typing pool : 

by 8 workers to a total of 1 8 
3- Reduce number of secretaries in headquarters : 
by 12 to a total of 25 

4. Reduce cost of technical training : 

by 25 percent 

5. Increase number of managers at GS-15 level who have at- 
tended an advanced management course : 

by 50 percent 

6. Reduce number of disciplinary cases : 

by 30 percent 

Qualitative Targets 

1 . Revamp performance rating plan. 

2. Revise promotion policy. 

3. Conduct trial run on job rotation. 

4. Issue booklet on personnel procedures for supervisors. 

5. Develop safety program for office workers. 

6. Develop multiple management plan. 

7. Increase internal communications among staff members. 

8. Revise employee handbook. 


Appendix III 

Setting Standards of Performance for Managerial 


Meetings with Staff. Performance is satisfactory when : 

• They are held frequently (e.g., once per week) . 

• They are scheduled. 

• They are held as scheduled. 

• An agenda is prepared in advance. 

• The staff participates in developing the agenda. 

• The meeting is used to solve problems (in addition to dis- 
seminating information) . 

• Participation is free and easy and the "boss" deemphasizes 
his status and presence. 

• Meetings are held in a comfortable and relaxed atmosphere. 

• Proceedings and agreements reached are reduced to writing 

Note: (1) This type of standard may be prepared by a manager and 
his subordinate manager, or it may be prepared by the manager and his 
staff on a group-meeting basis. The latter approach is a more effective 
means of standard setting for it taps the thinking of the group. 

(2) These items regarding the staff meeting are only suggestive. Dif- 
ferent managers may set up other standards for the staff meeting. 


Appendix IV 


Supervisory Engineer John Grove and I met on November 1 to 
discuss his development needs. We agreed on these points: 

Development Need 

1. Technical 

a. Hydraulic problems are 
becoming pressing. John has 
had no formal training in this 

b. Our safety matters are 
requiring closer coordination 
and direction. John has never 
worked much in this area 

2. Management 

a. We expect John to speak 
before outside groups — he finds 
this embarrassing. 

b. John can use a broad pic- 
ture of the administrative proc- 
ess, for he is relatively new to 
his job which is essentially 

Action to Meet the Need 

John will attend local Uni- 
versity at night and take Hy- 
draulic Engineering, I and II, 
in the next two semesters. We 
will pay for this under the 
Training Act. 

John will spend l /- of his 
time with the safety engineer 
for the next 6 months. This 
will be primarily in the after- 
noon, although in some weeks 
it may be for a full day or two. 

John has agreed to join 
Toastmaster Club No. 682 in 
town. They meet every other 
Thursday at noon. 

In the next 24 months, John 
will enroll in a two-week ad- 
vanced management program. 
We have agreed that a summer 
might be the best time for this. 


John Grove. 
Henry Lawton. 


Appendix V 

Techniques of Management Development 


A management development program is intended primarily to 
increase the participant's competence to do his present job. A 
secondary purpose is to prepare him for promotion to a position 
of greater responsibility. Therefore, it is essential to bridge the 
gap between the skills he now has and those required for greater 
competence. It follows that the techniques applied in accom- 
plishing this objective will vary widely. 

The success of any training program (and therefore any man- 
agement development program) depends upon the resources and 
the resourcefulness of the trainers and trainees. In a small orga- 
nization the resources available for training and management 
development may be limited. However, this lack of resources 
will not seriously interfere with its success if the resourcefulness is 
there in abundance; e.g., effective coaching and deep delegation 
are possible in any size park or office. 

In the paragraphs which follow we have attempted to describe 
some of the more common developmental techniques. They are 
relatively simple devices which have been employed in situations 
where even the term "management development" is unknown. 
We believe that the techniques which we have identified may be 
successfully utilized individually and in various combinations, 
depending upon need of the individual on the one hand and the 
resources and resourcefulness on the other. 

The head of a small organization need not be frightened by the 
idea of management development simply because he cannot afford 


involved or elaborate techniques. If he will sit down and think 
the problem through he will be amazed (and pleased) to find 
how much he can do on a systematic basis with a relatively small 


the TEST 

Coaching by Superior 

This method of training is fundamental. It involves taking 
advantage of each working situation to teach others the mana- 
gerial job. It tests the ability of the leader to "lead" rather than 
to "drive." It is accomplished by a wise delegation of authority, 
coupled with patience, skill and tact in the handling of the 

One company (Carnegie-Illinois Steel Corporation) sums up 
very well the general techniques involved in developing the sub- 
ordinate on a coaching basis. They are: 

1. "What Do You Think"? method (aim is to get the subordi- 
nate to analyze and think). 


2. "Get and Interpret the Facts" 
method (provides experience in 
organizing an attack on a prob- 
lem) . 

3. "Man — Management" meth- 
od (or getting work done with 
people ; emphasis on being a leader 
rather than a boss) . 

4. "Send Him Upstairs" method 
(i.e., send the man to represent 

his superior at meetings, conferences; this develops his self-con- 
fidence and broadens his insight into organization activities and 
problems) . 

In addition, the subordinate may be encouraged to read in the 
professional or technical literature, to take outside courses, to 
participate in professional and civic organizations, and generally 
to develop himself. He must be schooled constantly in the impor- 
tance of good communications, human relations, fixing and dele- 
gating responsibility, and like principles of good management. 
Above all, the trainer should set the proper example for his 

In light of the above observations it is apparent that the success 
of this training depends in large measure upon the capabilities of 
the manager as a trainer. 


Probably the most effective way to develop managers is by 
giving them authority to get their job done. A manager's best 
learning device is through decision-making. We learn best by 
doing, and delegated authority to act would appear to be the best 
training device we can have. 

Then, too, we can't evaluate the manager's effectiveness unless 
he does make decisions. All too many training devices and pro- 
grams are of minimum effectiveness because we don't really know 
what the trainee has learned and what he can do. If we give him 


an opportunity to exercise authority and hold him responsible for 
results, we will be employing one of the best executive training 
devices. At the same time, we will be able to appraise the extent 
to which his managerial talents have matured. 

If you want people 
to grow — 

Don't be a 




Job Rotation 

Small organizations have a natural advantage in broadening 
their personnel. This follows because work assignments tend to 
be of an undifferentiated or nonspecialized nature. Contrari- 
wise, medium-sized and large organizations ordinarily utilize per- 
sonnel on a specialized basis. In time, this may result in the 
deadening of interests and outlooks on the part of men who 
ultimately will (or should) assume broader responsibilities. To 
overcome this compartmentalization, it is essential to provide 
managers with the opportunity to obtain experience in many 
phases of the Service's work. A planned program to meet this 
need may be termed "job rotation." 

For maximum effectiveness job rotations should involve rela- 
tively long-term assignments, i.e., 2 to 5 months. More frequently, 
however, it may be inconvenient to release a trainee for extended 
time periods. Thus, rotational assignments may be scheduled for 
short intervals (2 or 3 weeks or even 1 or 2 days per week) over 
a longer period of time (2 to 5 years). Short-term rotation 






extending over several years does have some advantages, includ- 
ing: provision of a longer period of organized training in which 
to absorb new ideas; provision of more opportunities to stop 
and consider where he (the trainee) is headed; formation of 
stronger habit patterns in self-training resulting from longer formal 
association with the program; and more frequent "updating" of 

Best results from job rotation will be had if the assignments 
are carefully planned and if the supervisor who receives the trainee 
understands the purpose of the rotation and utilizes him 

A problem in job rotation is that it may make heavy demands 
upon the executives or supervisors who are busy getting out the 
work of the units to which the trainees are assigned. However, 
the wise supervisor will utilize the trainee to make his own job 
easier. This is particularly true in respect to the assignment 
of tasks or projects of a management character which otherwise 
might go undone. Then, too, the conscientious and mature super- 
visor will enjoy the opportunity to help other human beings grow. 

Special Assignments 

Special assignments permit the manager to develop by actual 
participation in meaningful activities. These assignments may 
be related directly to the work of the office; e.g., working up the 


budget or handling knotty public relations, organization or per- 
sonnel problems. They also may be less directly related to organi- 
zation activities; e.g., acting as recorder at a professional society 
meeting, leading a discussion, or arranging for a conference 
(including concern with agenda, participants, administrative 
details, etc.) . 

All of these activities necessitate preparation. The manager 
must plan and budget his time, develop and arrange facts, make 
a report or write a staff paper, and justify his conclusions and 
recommendations. These actions aid in setting good work habits. 
They help him decide how much he can take on and point up the 
need for scheduling time and setting a priority to known goals. 
They help him to adjust to new situations and people and to 
recognize his own shortcomings and limitations. 

Special assignments are particularly valuable as a development 
tool in situations where the manager cannot be away from the 
park or office for extended time periods. 

Committee Assignments 

Committees are established to initiate or support significant 
executive action. Frequently, important staff work is accom- 
plished through the medium of the committee. Typical of com- 
mittees in the management area are those concerned with sug- 
gestions, training, recreation, grievances, job evaluation, safety, 
employee association, management improvement, etc. Technical 
committees across organizational lines also may be used. 

One of the ingredients of a 
management development plan 
may be participation in these 
committee deliberations and, 
where appropriate, decision-mak- 
ing. The degree of the manag- 
er's participation will be condi- 
tioned in part by the extent to 
which he has developed — but his 


participation must be active and, wherever practicable, must place 
upon him full responsibility for his decisions and actions. Mere 
observation of committee action ordinarily cannot be expected to 
facilitate growth except possibly when the committee is engaged 
in high policy deliberations. 

Assignments to committees should be rotated to provide devel- 
opmental opportunities to as great a number of employees as is 

Temporary Replacement 

In the absence of a manager on a field trip, military leave, vaca- 
tion, illness, etc., subordinates may have excellent opportunities 
to function in managerial capacities. This follows since as 
"pinch-hitters" they (may) have full responsibility for a given 

Assignments of a temporary nature can be made within the 
immediate office or in another office. All assignments of this 
sort need not be up — they may be (and often are) down, too. 
Best results are obtained by planning for and following up after 
the tour of duty ends. 

One caution: It should be clear to all that the word "acting" 
is stressed — this is essential to avoid the impression that the tem- 
porary assignee has a vested right to the job. 

Observation and Inspection Tours; Field Trips 

To enrich the manager's experience, to broaden his insight into 
problems not readily apparent at his desk, to provide him with 
opportunities to appreciate other-echelon (higher or lower) think- 
ing, needs, problems, etc., it is desirable to make trips away from 
his office. 

These visits may also take place in another organization doing 
like work or having similar organization or operating problems. 
Here the objective is to ascertain how others are meeting their 
problems. Or it may occur within the organization, but in an 


out-of-the-city location. The objective in the latter instance may 
be to evaluate the effectiveness of headquarters policies; to learn 
of field viewpoints, complaints or difficulties ; to provide assist- 
ance on a particular problem area; to improve relations and 
understanding between field and headquarters levels. 

Other visits may be designed to augment the manager's tech- 
nical knowledge. He thus may visit laboratories, exhibits, and 
demonstrations, or participate in various tests and exercises. 

To obtain maximum results from this training device, the 
subordinate upon his return should prepare a full report pointing 
up his impressions, findings, and recommendations for action. It 
also is obvious that unless the trip has specific objectives, is well- 
planned, and properly scheduled ("quickie" visits are mere time 
wasters), the man would do better to stay in his office. 

In general, these visits should furnish new ideas and may pave 
the way for changes, once the manager sees how and what others 
are doing. 

Participation in Staff Meetings 

Staff meetings are conducted for many purposes. These 
include the passing on of information to staff members, the resolu- 
tion of problems, the development of policy, the coordination 
of the several activities of the organization to ensure uniform 
thinking and harmonious action, the development of a team feel- 
ing, etc. 

Since those in attendance ordinarily represent a particular spe- 
ciality or segment of the organization's program, the staff meeting 
can provide excellent opportunities for development. This fol- 
lows since the problems under discussion invariably are broader 
than those of a given specialty. Insight is thereby provided into 
subjects which cut across organizational lines. 

In addition, in the give-and-take which is basic to the discus- 
sion, the participants learn to respect other viewpoints, to weigh 
the facts, to clarify points at issue, to express themselves effec- 
tively, and to appreciate two-way communication. 


From the standpoint of the organization head who conducts 
the staff meeting, he can assess his subordinate supervisors quite 
readily in terms of their participation and contribution. He, of 
course, should endeavor to draw them out so that they will partici- 
pate actively. Participation and developmental benefits will be 
insignificant and apathetic if it is apparent that the staff meetings 
are essentially "window dressing," because the boss always has 
his mind made up in advance on the problem. 

Participation in 
Policy Development 

In an attempt to improve and 
democratize management, the 
McCormick Company of Balti- 
more established a Junior Board 
of Directors in 1932. This plan of 
management development is 

known as "Multiple Management." This system benefits the 
organization in that it taps the ideas of its lower-echelon managers 
and helps to identify "The Comers." At the same time it permits 
them to develop by : 

Direct, frequent participation in important policy discussions. 

Acquisition of management skills and attitudes through close 
participation with their bosses. 

Developing skill in group thinking (the teamwork idea) . 

Learning about organization-wide problems and their rela- 

Learning to accept other peoples ideas and viewpoints. 

Stimulating them to think (middle management and first- 
line supervisory operations too often become routine and thus 
narrow outlooks) . 

Participation in Community and Civic Affairs 

From a public relations standpoint, the advantage of participa- 
tion in community and civic affairs to the individual's organiza- 


tion is obvious. But to the manager its importance lies in the 
benefits he derives from such participation. These include: 
development of self-confidence through outside contacts and by 
getting things done; experience in arranging and organizing 
projects, meetings, conferences, etc.; an insight into public re- 
lations techniques and practices; a feeling of satisfaction by 
engaging in a project which helps the community or segments 
thereof which may need assistance; getting to know individuals 
such as civic leaders, educators, clergymen, union officials and 
others who may be useful "contacts" in getting one's own job done 
more effectively in the future. 

Membership in Professional Organizations 

Much of the manager's development necessarily depends on 
himself. An excellent means of self-development is via active 
participation in professional societies and associations. This ac- 
tivity may take the following forms: working on a special project 
as a member of a work group ; writing articles ; membership on a 
committee; serving as a society officer, committee chairman or 
head of a work group ; attending conferences, institutes, meetings, 
and wherever possible serving as a conference officer or panel 
member or panel chairman. 

The values (from the standpoint of professional growth) of 
active participation in these activities include : 

1 . Opportunity to give and receive new ideas and developments 
in one's field of activity; securing assistance in solving one's every- 
day problems; developing higher standards of achievement; and 
maintaining a fresh outlook on present problems. 

2- Learning to work with others; development of attitudes of 
cooperation and respect for others' viewpoints. 

3. Meeting other coworkers and leaders in the same or allied 
occupation (s) ; these contacts will grow wider, more valuable, 
year by year, and provide vitalizing experience. 

4. Bringing recognition for one's work; stimulating interest in 
one's profession. 


5. Providing an outlet for creative and organizing talents and 
a means for developing them. 

Attendance at Professional Meetings and Conferences 

To broaden the manager's outlook, to give him insight into 
problems related to his work, to give him an opportunity to ex- 
change ideas and share experiences with others in his profession, 
he should be encouraged and permitted to attend outside meet- 
ings, conferences, institutes, seminars, and symposia. These may 
range in time from 1 hour to 1 week. 

Training of this type is essential to develop the man into the 
full, well-rounded manager. In the absence of such training, 
intellectual stagnation and vegetation is almost a certainty to re- 
sult. This training medium is essential for the budding manager 
to aid in his growth, and for the experienced manager to retain a 
fresh viewpoint. 

Systematic Reading 

To round out the manager's knowledge of particular problem 
areas, and to give him greater insight into management subjects, 
he should be encouraged to read extensively. The bulk of this 
reading will be done off the job. Management journals are a 
good source for this purpose. 

Subordinates should be encouraged to become regular readers 
in the professional literature. This reading should be planned 
and pinpointed to the individual's development program. It 
cannot proceed haphazardly and without direction if it is to be 
meaningful. Planned reading programs enable the manager to 
concentrate on subjects most useful to him. Then, too, they 
can be pursued at the time and pace determined by him. 

You, as a supervisor, can serve a most important role by doing 
some "digging" yourself — i.e., studying management books, arti- 
cles and various professional materials as well as referring them 
to your "understudies" for review and comment. A practical 
technique is to have a staff member take on a current book, read 


it, write an abstract, and report on it at a staff meeting so all 
can benefit as well as to open up other areas of self-expression 
and group responses. 

Recommended reading materi- 
als may be found either in the park 
or office library (if there is one) 
or in public and university librar- 
ies. The library of the Depart- 
ment of Interior should also be 
utilized. A library, if it can be 
afforded, may pay off in that it 
saves the manager's time and 

encourages reading otherwise neglected. This follows due to its 
ready availability and accessibility. Even if books are limited, 
periodicals and pamphlets would seem to be a must if the man- 
ager is to keep current. 

The Personnel Office can play a most significant role insofar 
as planned reading programs are concerned. For example, it 
may recommend suitable readings in the management field. It 
may, from time to time, pass out reprints of articles on management 
subjects and executive practice. It should also attempt to evalu- 
ate the nature, extent, and success of reading programs. 

Outside Study (Schools, Correspondence Courses) 

In preparing a development program for a given manager, you 
may find that he lacks specific subject matter knowledge (e.g., 
economics, finance, statistics, management) , proper attitudes 
(e.g., human relations or communications), or skills and poise 
(e.g., conference leadership or speaking ability). It, therefore, 
may be desirable for him to attend courses at a university. 

This type of training may be taken off-the-job, by home study 
(depending on the type of course), or during the workday or 
workweek depending on the character of the course and the 
need. Some of these courses may be relatively short-term, others 
may require attendance over a two-year period. 


Universities and other organiza- 
tions also offer various middle 
management and executive devel- 
opment programs entitled "Exec- 
utive Program in Administration," 
"Advanced Management Pro- 
gram," "Executive Leadership 
Program" and "Laboratory Train- 
ing in Human Relations." 

Where appropriate, the Federal 
Employees Training Act of 1958 
may be used to finance the cost of courses in nongovernment 

A major problem in off-the-job training is how to translate it 
into on-the-job behavior. It is obvious, of course, that the more 
closely such training is geared to organization problems and 
involves participation, the more likely it is to prove effective. 
Discussion about the training and followup are essential devices to 
ensure payoffs. 

Conference Leadership 

Conference leadership training is essentially training in logical 
thinking and listening. Its aim is to encourage the use of ques- 
tions and free, open discussion at all meetings in which the man- 
ager participates. True development occurs when the manager 
presents the problem and asks "What do you think about this?", 
as opposed to his trying to provide all the solutions. 

The trained conference leader is one who ascertains that perti- 
nent facts are in, that the problem is accurately defined, that the 
problem is evaluated, that all possible solutions are considered, 
and that a positive reasonable and logical course of action is 
adopted. Above all, he must learn to listen; and to remember that 
conferences must be member-centered rather than leader- 
centered, that the leader's function is that of "group servant" and 
to tap the ideas of the group. 


Some value to be gained from this type of training are learning 
to think on one's feet, stimulating others to think by proper use 
of questions, development of self-confidence, poise, and the posi- 
tive aspects of one's personality, and a recognition that confer- 
ences can serve a form of catharsis (letting subordinates sound-off 
and blow off steam) . 

Public Speaking 

Leaders in every walk of life share many characteristics and 
skills. Some are innate; many others can be acquired. An im- 
portant leadership skill which can be learned is the ability to 
present ideas effectively on a face-to-face basis. This skill is 
particularly important when we realize that our society today, and 
to an ever increasing degree, is less a reading world. Increasingly, 
ideas are being transmitted through non-written media. Under 
conditions' such as these, the need for speaking ability is obvious. 

Then, too, practice in speaking also provides the manager 
with poise and self-confidence. While opportunities for speaking 
before groups may arise within the organization, the initial train- 
ing must be undertaken by the trainee himself. Membership in a 
Toastmasters Club is the best way to secure this training. The 
trainee should avail himself of other opportunities to speak before 
groups; e.g., in professional, civic, fraternal, and cultural pursuits. 

Human Relations 

Effective human relations is one of the most important elements 
in a well-run organization. Today, intelligent management 
recognizes that the managerial job is primarily one of fitting 
together the logical conduct of operations, the social structure 
of teamwork, and the emotional characteristics of individuals. 
Problems of dissatisfaction, conflict, low morale, turnover, absen- 
teeism, low or faulty production, grievances, etc., stem from poor 
or indifferent relations between management and the work force 
or within the work force. 


Can supervisors and executives be taught to improve their 
human relations? This question can be answered affirmatively, 
but with one proviso — that the top man in the organization re- 
ceives the training first and sets the tone thereafter. In essence, 
human relations is taught best through the process of "contagion," 
based on the examples set by the organization head. 

Where can this type of training be best acquired in a formal 
way? We recommend highly the "sensitivity training laboratory." 
These laboratories, which are located at some 35 universities 
around the country, give group members a chance to learn about 
their own behavior as their peers perceive it. In more specific 
terms the learnings are these : 

• Awareness on the part of a 
management man of his own 
effect on individuals and partic- 
ularly on group situations. 

• Sensitivity to social and psy- 
chological factors in the organi- 
zational situation, which means the effective management man 
must see people as groups as well as individuals, and be able 
really to listen not only to words, but to what people are trying 
to say by their moods and by their actions. 

• Diagnostic ability, because he must recognize what the cur- 
rent situation is and how it is likely to affect any particular 
subgroup or individual. 

• Understanding of group processes by which groups grow, 
choose goals and set standards, or do work, and how they are 
maintained, changed, or dissolved. This helps to explain 
what's wrong when we do not get teamwork. 


A human organization is a complex mechanism. It is com- 
posed of many specialists and it has many layers. What would 
happen if all those people were unable to communicate with one 


another? No one would know what to do and the work would 
be left undone. 

Communication enables an organization to function. Through 
communication people receive instructions, report results, solve 
problems, and most importantly, learn the why behind plans and 
decisions. The better the organization's communications, the 
more effectively it will operate. And the best communication 
systems are those that lead up and across as well as down. 

In view of the importance of 
communications, it is surprising 
how often its principles are vio- 
lated. To ensure that those in 
or intended for managerial jobs 
appreciate the importance of 
communications, training is nec- 
essary. Training programs 
should cover areas such as the fol- 
lowing: introducing the worker, 

orientation, two-way communication, media (staff meetings, sug- 
gestion boxes, newspapers, memoranda, bulletin boards, reports) , 
the role of rumor and the grapevine, junior boards, barriers to 
effective communication, and the like. 

Administrative Practices 

Administrative principles and practices are the technique for 
welding the ingredients of an enterprise into a functioning organ- 
ization and keeping it functioning smoothly and effectively. 
While the principles may be universal, the applications of those 
principles varies widely and reflects the local problems of the 
organization. The effective manager cannot afford to suffocate 
professionally in a mass of administrative details, but he must be 
thoroughly competent to acquire, safeguard, and effectively utilize 
the men, money and materials required by his enterprise. He 
must, therefore, be thoroughly comfortable in the midst of the 
administrative processes which transform men, money and materi- 


als into visitor service. Consequently our development program 
should make provision for training in budgeting, procurement, 
personnel management, fiscal management, and related subjects. 

Training in Technical Fields 

The true manager is a person who knows how to employ effec- 
tively the technical skills of his subordinates and associates. He is 
not necessarily the most competent person in the technical details 
of the operations of his organization. (The inscription on 
Andrew Carnegie's tombstone is: "Here lies a man who knew how 
to enlist in his service better men than himself"). Nevertheless, 
he cannot administer in a psychological vacuum. He must be 
conversant with the operating problems of his organization and, 
for that matter, in a relatively small organization, he may have to 
be the technical leader as well as the administrator. 

Normally we think of technical skills as falling in the range of 
skills acquired through outside education, self-development, or 
long-term apprenticeships, and therefore outside the field of a 
management development program. It frequently happens that 
to get precisely the right balance of administrative and technical 
know-how, the management development program must provide 
a systematic means for acquiring or enlarging the manager's tech- 
nical skill and his fund of professional information, particularly 
when the organization has peculiar operating problems. 

Of particular importance, too, in this era of rapid change, is the 
need to update regularly our professional or technical knowledge. 


For Further Reading 

Hersey, Rexford. "As Others See Us," Personnel, July-August 

A description and evaluation of the successful management de- 
velopment program in the Philadelphia refinery of the Gulf Oil 
Company begun in 1958. In this program all managerial per- 
sonnel receive data about their performance from subordinates, 
peers and the immediate superior. 

Likert, Ren sis. "Motivational Approach to Management De- 
velopment," Harvard Business Review, July-August 1960. 

A leading psychologist points up the findings of current research 
in relation to motivation, communications, productivity and 
management development. Emphasis is on setting of objec- 
tives on a team basis; i.e., by the manager and his staff. 

Maier, Norman R. F. The Appraisal Interview: Objectives, 
Methods and Skills. New York, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1958. 

An outstanding industrial psychologist discusses three ways to 
communicate performance to staff: "tell and sell," "tell and 
listen," and "mutual problem solving." The merits and dis- 
advantages of each, based on research, are presented. 

Marting, Elizabeth and Merrill, Harwood F. Developing 
Executive Skills: New Patterns for Management Growth. New 
York, American Management Association, 1958. 

A comprehensive treatment of the basic concepts, approaches, 
and techniques of management development. A number of 
company plans are included. 


Mayfield, Harold. "In Defense of Performance Appraisal," 
Harvard Business Review, March-April 1960. 

Clarifies purposes and techniques of the "progress review." 
Discusses a wide variety of related matters including basic pur- 
poses, reactions of participants, counseling problems, candor, 
communications, climate, listening, and subjects to cover in the 

McGregor, Douglas. Human Side of Enterprise. New York, 
McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1960. 

One of the leading exponents of the importance of "climate" in 
organizational effectiveness applies his philosophy to the basic 
elements of organizational life. The book explains the role of 
assumption in interpersonal relations, the importance of man- 
agement objectives, the relationship between supervisor-sub- 
ordinate and how it affects the organization, and the practices 
related to developing an effective organizational climate for 
human growth in the organization. Very useful in the "goal 
setting" approach to management development. 

Patton, Arch. "How to Appraise Executive Performance," 
Harvard Business Review, January-February 1960. 

Use of "planned performance" approach can reduce subjective 
bias, avoid mathematical rigidity, boost performance by setting 
goals, and build confidence with fair evaluation. A useful ref- 
erence for target setting approach to management development. 

Rowland, Virgil K. Improving Managerial Performance. 
New York, Harper & Bros., 1958. 

A short, concise, easy-to-read book on management develop- 
ment, with particular emphasis on group appraisal techniques. 

Rowland, Virgil K. Managerial Performance Standards. 
New York, American Management Association, 1960. 

A down-to-earth treatment of the why and how of setting per- 
formance standards. Tells how to strengthen the "man-to- 


boss" relationship as a means of improving performance. 
Shows how superior and subordinate can work together to set 
standards in group discussions and private interviews. 

Schein, Edgar H. "Management Development as a Process of 
Influence," Industrial Management Review, May 1961. 

Approaches manager development from the standpoint of how 
the manager's attitudes can be changed for the best interests of 
the organization. Regards the "influence process" as one hav- 
ing three phases : unfreezing, changing and refreezing attitudes. 

Soik, Nile. "How to Conduct the Employee Performance Re- 
view: A Step-by-Step Procedure," Journal of the American 
Society of Training Directors, November 1958. 

Suggests that difficulties in performance review can be overcome 
by eight steps: planning, preparing the employee, reaching 
agreement on responsibilities, criticizing constructively and 
praising sincerely, listening with empathy, working out a mu- 
tual plan, closing on a positive note, and following-up. 



"// is only the little man who ever graduates; the big fellow 
stays at school every day of the year. " 

— Edward N. Hurley 

<-^L n$- ntfu 

"One of the major tasks of any program of management 
development is to bring to the surface the individual's resistance 
to growth and change, and help him to decide whether he really 
wants to undergo the difficult task of learning and changing. 
Unless the individual ultimately reduces his resistances and com- 
mits himself to a program of change, training will be ineffective, 
no matter how beautifully dressed or persuasively presented." 

Leland P. Bradford, Director 
National Training Laboratories 
National Education Association 

The most valuable executive is one who is 
training somebody to be a better man than 
he is.— R. C. Ingersoll, President, Borg- 
Warner Corp., The Management Review, 
Nov. 1957.